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    From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
    To:      XXCOPY user
    Subject: XXCOPY in batch files
    Date:    2000-12-31  (revised)
        XXCOPY as a general purpose file management tool, works well
        as a hand-typed command in a DOS Box.  It is also a useful
        building block of a complex task written as a batch file
        for a job like a full system backup, daily incremental backup
        as well as a specialized project archiving.  In these cases,
        the whole job is made of a series of XXCOPY commands since
        XXCOPY is better suited to handle one directory (and its
        subdirectories) at a time.  It is not uncommon that a well-
        written batch file  for a backup job consists of ten or more
        lines of XXCOPY commands.
        Since XXCOPY plays an important role in batch programming,
        mastering its command switches which are designed for such
        purposes will help you write better batch files.  The switches
        that are particularly useful inside a batch file are:
           /YY /CB /CBQ /CE /EC /IA /IP
    How to get rid of the Y/N prompt.
        This is probably the most frequently asked question with
        regard to batch files.
         The following command shows the switches which prompt you.
             XXCOPY /YY /?
        XXCOPY provides various switches to suppress specific
        user prompts.  For example, /ZY is a variation of /Z
        which does not produce user prompts and good for batch
        file.  Similarly, /PD0 suppresses a user prompt for
        directory processing (mostly for deletion).  But, it becomes
        a hassle even to an experienced XXCOPY users.  Yes, XXCOPY
        has grown to be a monster with so many switches, you just
        can't remember all.  So, we now have an all-purpose prompt
        buster switch, /YY (super-YES).
         Note:  although the use of /YY is very convenient to remove
                the various warning prompts, it is recommended only
                in well-tested batch files where any typing error
                would not cause any serious damage.
           E.g. XXCOPY  %1  %2  /CLONE /YY
                This is probably the worst place to use the /YY
                switch.  A user-supplied parameters (%1 and %2)
                in a batch file make the command is susceptible to
                human error.
                Just remember that the various warning prompts are
                there for good reason.  Using the /YY switch, you
                are denying yourself benefit of the safeguard.
    Example of a standard batch file.
        Advanced batch programmers test the exit code (ERRORLEVEL)
        returned by a program and branch off if certain conditions
        are met (e.g., terminate when a fatal error occurs).  Due to
        the severe limitation in the batch language, a typical batch
        file with conditional branching usually looks quite unsightly.
           XXCOPY c:\windows\  d:\backup\windows\   /S /Y
           IF ERRORLEVEL 100 GOTO step2
           IF ERRORLEVEL 1   GOTO end
           XXCOPY c:\mydir\    d:\backup\mydir\     /S /Y
           IF ERRORLEVEL 100 GOTO step3
           IF ERRORLEVEL 1   GOTO end
           XXCOPY c:\yourdir\  d:\backup\yourdir\   /S /Y
           IF ERRORLEVEL 100 GOTO step3
           IF ERRORLEVEL 1   GOTO end
        Here, the ERRORLEVEL returned by XXCOPY is tested for both
        the lower and the upper bounds to perform the conditional
        branching.  Most of the typing is consumed for the error
        handling.  It takes a lot of self discipline to write a good
        bath file with proper testing.
        By the way, a list of the exit code generated by XXCOPY can
        be viewed by running the following command:
            XXCOPY  /HELPE
        Also see article: XXTB #31, about Exit Code.
    Using the /CB switch, the same sequence becomes...
           XXCOPY      c:\windows\  d:\backup\windows\   /S /Y
           XXCOPY /CB  c:\mydir\    d:\backup\mydir\     /S /Y
           XXCOPY /CB  c:\yourdir\  d:\backup\yourdir\   /S /Y
        In this alternative batch file, the IF ERRORLEVEL... lines
        are eliminated by the use of the /CB switch (except the first
        line).  The /CB switch which stands for "Continue-Batch"
        examines the exit code returned by the previous execution of
        XXCOPY and immediately terminates the current execution if
        the previous error condition was fatal (such as disk-full,
        or a user-abort).  How does one instance of XXCOPY know
        the exit code of its previous run?  Simple.  XXCOPY stores
        its exit code in the system registry for its own retrieval
        later.  Notice that there is no awkward branching in the
        batch file.  Actually, the exit code of one XXCOPY is NOT
        examined by the batch execution mechanism.  Therefore, the
        flow of the batch file is always to execute all the lines
        in the file.  The /CB switch provides a mechanism where a
        fatal error reported by one XXCOPY instance will propagate
        through the rest of the batch file execution that all
        subsequent XXCOPY lines with the /CB switch will be nullified.
        Note:  The position of the /CB switch within the command
               line is not significant.  Because of it's early action,
               it seems most appropriate to place it early on the line.
    /CBQ for a cleaner screen when the batch file is aborted.
        Actually, /CBQ (the quiet version) is preferred by most
        users since this version will keep the console screen
        much cleaner when it is combined with a "ECHO OFF"
        statement in the batch file.
           @ECHO OFF
           XXCOPY       c:\windows\  d:\backup\windows\   /S /Y
           XXCOPY /CBQ  c:\mydir\    d:\backup\mydir\     /S /Y
           XXCOPY /CBQ  c:\yourdir\  d:\backup\yourdir\   /S /Y
        The virtue of running the batch file with the ECHO OFF
        setting is that the XXCOPY lines subsequent to a fatal error
        of an XXCOPY will not clobber the screen.  The last XXCOPY
        line with the error message will not be pushed off the screen
        with echoed command lines even though they terminate immediately.
                 What does the @ECHO OFF statement do?
                 ECHO OFF inside a batch file turns off the display
                 of the command line (the current line in the batch
                 file.  Without it, every line in the batch file will
                 appear on your console.  An at sign (@) at the beginning
                 of a line in a batch file turns off echoing just one
                 line (You may add an at sign (@) on every line to have
                 the same effect as ECHO OFF.  The first at sign (@) in
                 the first line suppressing the echoing of its line, too.
    /EC and /CE for even a better batch file.
        The problem of running the batch file with ECHO OFF mode
        is that the screen will not show the command invocation.
        What we really want is to generate no output to the console
        when XXCOPY is terminated by the /CB mechanism but to echo
        the invocation line if it will continue the execution.
        That is what /EC (to echo the command line) does.  Moreover
        the /CBQ/EC combination is so handy in a batch file, XXCOPY
        assigns a new switch, /CE as the shortcut for /CBQ/EC.
        So, rewriting the same batch file, it should look like
           @ECHO OFF
           XXCOPY /EC  c:\windows\  d:\backup\windows\   /S /Y
           XXCOPY /CE  c:\mydir\    d:\backup\mydir\     /S /Y
           XXCOPY /CE  c:\yourdir\  d:\backup\yourdir\   /S /Y
        Note that it is not a typo!  The first line uses /EC (echo)
        and the other lines are with /CE (shortcut for /CBQ/EC).
        It looks symmetrical and even cute.
    Using XXCOPY macro to create a unique destination.
        When you create a batch file for a periodic (daily) backup,
        you may want to encode the current date (today) as a part
        of the destination directory name you create.  XXCOPY's macro
        reference feature (/$xxxx$) was designed exactly for that.
        For example, when you can enter
            XXCOPY C:\  D:\mybackup\DB/$YYMMDD$\  /CLONE
        and it will be expanded to
            XXCOPY C:\  D:\mybackup\DB011225\     /CLONE
        (assuming the current (today's) date is December 25, 2001.)
        See article: XXTB #24, about Macros.
    Testing if a directory exists
        The following sequence is a well established technique to
        test whether or not a directory exists in a batch file.
           IF EXIST d:\backup\mybackup\nul goto next
           XXCOPY c:\  d:\backup\mybackup\ /CLONE
        The IF EXIST (and IF NOT EXIST) construct is good only for a
        file, not a directory.  Here, the neat trick is based upon the
        fact the virtual file, "NUL" is guaranteed to exist on any
        Now, using XXCOPY'S /IA (which stands for "If Absent"),
        the same command line will be re-written as
           XXCOPY c:\  d:\backup\mybackup\ /IA /CLONE
        The /IA switch continues to run only if the destination directory
        is absent (that is, /IA will terminate immediately if the
        destination exists).  It is equivalent to the "IF NOT EXIST"
        construct in the batch file.  On the other hand, /IP (If Present)
        continues to run only if the destination is present (that is,
        /IP will terminate immediately if the destination does not exist).
        it is exact opposite of /IA.
    Testing a directory using macro.
        The power of /IA and /IP becomes even more evident when you use
        a destination directory which is specified by a macro reference.
           XXCOPY c:\  d:\backup\DB/$YYMMDD$\ /IA /CLONE
        In this case, it's not a matter of making the batch file shorter
        and prettier.  There is no simple way to test the presence or the
        absence of a directory whose name is "synthesized".
        This command executes only when the directory is absent.
        This technique prevents running the same daily backup routine
        twice on the same day.
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