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    From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
    To:      XXCOPY user
    Subject: The leading backslash in a filespec
    Date:    2002-01-03 (revised)
      As we see more and more IT professionals who are born after the
      WYSIWYG/GUI scheme was invented, certain key concepts which we
      took for granted are no longer a commonsense...
          xxcopy c:\  d:\  /clone
          xxcopy c:   d:   /clone
      If you know the difference of the two lines, just forget this.
      But, if you consider the two are about the same, this article
      is for you.  The difference is subtle and in many cases, the
      two lines are the same, indeed.  Howerver, in the second line,
      the context determines what will be copied and where will be
      the destination directory (and what will be deleted from the
    Absolute pathspec and Relative pathspec.
      The first line of the above example explicitly specifies
      that both the source and the destination are the root
      directory of respective drives.  The second line does not
      specify which directory in the source and which directory
      of the destination within the respective drives.  That is,
      the second example above relies the exact location of both
      the source and the destination directories on the default
      behavior of the OS.  Microsoft's OSes keep track of the current
      (default) directory on each volume.  If it has not been
      defined yet, it will go to the root directory (which is what
      most users want).  Depending on the setting, when you open up
      a DOS box, the current (default) directory may or may not be
      at the root directory.  Also, the current directory of C: may
      be at c:\windows whereas on D:, it may be D:\.  You just
      cannot easily predict what it may be.  Therefore, the common
      assumption that an unspecified path is equivalent to the root
      directory is extremely dangerous with a tool like XXCOPY.
      The consequence of the /ZY switch (which is part of the
      /CLONE switch) on a wrong source or destination could be quite
      FATAL (wipes out all mismatched directories along with their
      entire contents).
    Actual examples:
      Let me give you one concrete example.  If you run the
      following command,
          cd  d:\mydir
      The current directory of Volume D: will be set to d:\mydir.
      So, unless you change the current (default) directory of
      Volume D: back to its root, when you say
          xxcopy c:\  d:        /clone
      Then, the line is equivalent to
          xxcopy c:\  d:\mydir  /clone
      Similarly, when volume C:'s current directory is not at the
      root directory (it could be at c:\windows) and you try to copy
          xxcopy c:  d:\          /clone
      In this case, it is equivalent to
          xxcopy c:\Windows  d:\  /clone
      Again, it would give you quite a surprise.
    More than one "current" directory:
      With the most popular setting of the DOS prompt which usually
      shows you the "current directory of the current drive" such as
      the following,
        C:\Windows> _
      You don't get any feedback on what is the setting of another
      drive.  For example, the same example shown above, the console
      (the DOS box window)
        C:\Windows> cd d:\mydir
        C:\Windows> _
      When the cd (chdir) command succeeds, there will be no confirming
      message.  The command is quietly accepted and executed.
    Why XXCOPY does not supply the leading backslash for you?
      Believe it or not, the way the Absolute pathspec and relative
      pathspec are handled throughout the command line environment,
      be it DOS, Win32, or even Unix, the convention for the absolute
      pathspec and the relative pathspec are so fundamental and
      ubiquitous, if we were to implement XXCOPY's own convention
      and let XXCOPY implicitly supply the missing leading backslash,
      it would create an unbelievable chaos.
      Therefore, XXCOPY cannot help you on this, except it prompts
      you with an additional warning prompt.
    Similar cases everywhere:
      The distinction of the absolute and relative path is not limited
      to the source and the destination pathspecs.  It applies to
      any filename you specify in the XXCOPY command line (and also
      for most other programs in Windows).  For example, we often
      hear users complaining about XXCOPY not creating the log file.
      You may have a habit of being casual about creating a log file,
          XXCOPY c:\src\  d:\dst\  /onmyerror.log
      and find no problem.  Yet, when you make a batch file using
      the same line, you may not find the log file as easily.  If you
      don't control the "current directory" of the batch file
      invocation, you may have a hard time locating the log file.
           In Windows (for all the 9x and NT families),
           every shortcut object comes with a setting of
           the "current directory" (Right-click on the icon
           and look for the "Start in" setting).  In a case
           of a program file or a batch file, the directory
           specified in the "Start in" setting becomes the
           current directory when the program is executed.
      My advice is to spell out the full filespec always:
          XXCOPY c:\src\  d:\dst\  /on"C:\My Document\myerror.log"
      So, if you are in a position to advise others on how to use
      XXCOPY with a concrete example, please do not abbreviate the
      leading backslash for cloning a directory.  This one-character
      difference could be just too great to ignore.
      Let me repeat,
          xxcopy c:  d:   /clone     // BAD BAD BAD EXAMPLE!!!
      The /CLONE switch is too dangerous to let the system default
      setting determine the fate.  Instead always specify the
      directory using the full (absolute) directory path
          xxcopy c:\  d:\  /clone
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