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    From:    Kan Yabumoto           tech@xxcopy.com
    To:      XXCOPY user
    Subject: File Compression on the NTFS Volume
    Date:    2008-03-15
        One of the advantages in NTFS is its file compression capability.
        Starting with v 2.95.0, XXCOPY adds features that relate to
        file compression on the NTFS volume.
        In many instances, the file system treats the compression state
        of a file somewhat like an additional bit in the file attributes.
        On the other hand, there are many applications (notably, Windows
        Explorer and the command-line utility, ATTRIB.EXE to name a few)
        that treat the new C-bit (Compression bit) differently.  Furthermore,
        the way files and directories are created in a directory is
        dictated by the directory's compression setting.  In short,
        the C-bit in the NTFS volume is not like other ordinary file
    Compression, Pros and Cons:
        The NTFS design with regard to the compression setting is
        quite elegant and very easy to use.  For example, when you
        initialize a new NTFS partition in Windows XP, the Disk Management
        tool (DiskMgmt.msc) provides a checkbox for volume-wide compression
        setting immediately before a volume format operation.  Or, you
        may select any individual directory and enable or disable the
        compression setting through its property sheet.  Thereafter,
        its contents are created using the parent directory's compression
        setting.  You may later change the compression setting of any
        file or directory regardless of the parent directory's setting.
        With the property sheet, it is quite intuitive and easy to use.
        The best part of this scheme is that a compressed file behaves
        exactly like an uncompressed file from application program's
        point of view.  It is transparent to most programs.  Ultimately,
        file compression can save substantial storage space.
        The down side of the file compression is, of course, some
        penalty in access speed.  The trade off between the speed and
        the space saving should be carefully weighed when you implement
        the file compression on your NTFS volumes.  If you strike a
        good balance between the two factors, there are a lot to gain
        by using the file compression feature.
        It seems that the relative obscurity of the file compression
        may be due to the lack of efficient control of the settings.
        First of all, the most common way to manipulate the setting
        is by Windows Explorer's property sheet for the file/directory
        object which requires a second level of dialog in the Advanced
        Attributes setting window.  It takes six mouse button clicks
        per file to compress an individual file.
    XXCOPY to handle the compression settings:
        Starting with v.2.95.0 (released 2007-03-01), XXCOPY supports
        the file attributes C-bit (Compression).  Although the C-bit
        behaves somewhat differently from the rest of the common
        file attributes, XXCOPY will treat it uniformly.  That is,
        when you would like to convert a regular file to a compressed
        file, you set the C-bit of the file attributes using XXCOPY
        (the standard ATTRIB.EXE utility can handle only the A, H, S,
        and R bits).
        Remember how XXCOPY made files hidden and readonly?
          xxcopy  c:\mydir\*.doc  /AS:HR     // set H and R bits
        Then, the following is how to clear all AHSR bits:
          xxcopy  c:\mydir\*.doc  /AR:AHSR   // reset all four bits
           In addition to setting and resetting the file attributes
           bits, the /AN switch can be used to force a new value of
           any combination of the A, H, S, or R attribute bits
              xxcopy  c:\mydir\*.doc  /AN:AR   // force a new value
           Please note that the /AN operation does not support the
           C-bit just like the ATTRIB.EXE utility whose scope of
           operation is confined int the the A, H, S, or R bits.
        Changing the compression state of files uses the same command:
          xxcopy  c:\mydir\*.doc  /AS:C      // set the C-bit
          xxcopy  c:\mydir\*.doc  /AR:C      // reset the C-bit
        This is how you can compress a group of files in one breath
        and also how to uncompress them.  A change in the C-bit in the
        file attributes involves a compression or decompression operation
        of the file data which goes through file read/write accesses that
        are obviously much slower than normal changes in the file attribute
        bits.  If the operations would not change the existing C-bit value,
        XXCOPY's file attribute operation skips the assignment of the C-bit
        value for efficiency's sake.
    The relationship among the /AS, /AR, and /AN switches:
        Although the /AS (Set) and /AR (Reset) operations are listed
        in the same group in the documentation and related switches
        are typically treated as mutually exclusive (and if so, the
        last one always prevails), XXCOPY accepts both the /AS and /AR
        switches in one command, allowing the combination of the set
        and reset operations in one step as a special exception to
        the switch-grouping rule.
          When contradicting set of parameters are specified with
          /AS and /AR, then, the last value prevails.  For example,
          the following two commands achieve exactly the same result:
            xxcopy *.doc /AS:H /AR:AHC  // H-bit to be set, then reset 
            xxcopy *.doc       /AR:AHC  // H-bit will simply be reset
        While both the /AS and /AR operations work as a bit-wise
        manipulation of the existing file attributes value, the third
        method, the /AN operation assigns a whole new value to the
        file or directory object.  Therefore, the /AN switch and the
        other two (/AS and /AR as a pair if you will) are treated as
        mutually exclusive group as usual (the last one prevails).
    Compression Setting of Directories:
        Although XXCOPY's original design was mostly on files, the
        NTFS file compression feature demands XXCOPY to manipulate
        the directory attributes (known as "File Attributes" of
        directory).  So, the /AS and /AR functions are extended with
        the /ASD and /ARD functions respectively to handle directories
        as opposed to files.  To avoid complexities in the command
        line rules, we chose not to mix the two types of operations
        into one.
        That is, for file attributes, use /AS or /AR and for directory
        attributes, use /ASD and /ARD.  The required parameter
        (a combination of letters A, H, S, R, and C) works exactly the
        same for /ASD and /ARD.
          xxcopy  c:\mydir\    /ASD:C       // set the C-bit on mydir
          xxcopy  c:\mydir     /ASD:C       // set the C-bit on mydir
             Note that the trailing backslash is not needed because
             the /ASD switch disambiguates the meaning of the source
             specifier (c:\mydir).  However, we strongly suggest that
             you form a good habit of always furnishing the trailing
             backslash whenever you specify the name of a directory.
        The important thing is that when the C-bit of a directory is
        set, the effect is limited to the directory's attributes setting
        itself.  The current contents of the directory, if present,
        will not be compressed by this action.  Files and subdirectories
        created thereafter in the directory will automatically inherit
        the compression setting of the directory (files will saved in
        compressed mode).
        If you want to compress the whole directory and its existing
        subdirectories, then, you should specify /S as usual.
          xxcopy  c:\mydir\    /ASD:C /S     // mydir and its subdirs
        Since the above command does not touch the files inside,
        you need a second command to convert the content files.
          xxcopy  c:\mydir\    /AS:C  /S     // files inside every level
        Note that XXCOPY does not perform a conversion in either
        direction (from compressed to uncompressed and vice versa)
        when the file is already in the right state of compression.
        In other words, there will be no performance penalty in
        letting XXCOPY compress a file that is already stored in
        compressed mode and vice versa.
    Suggested Usages:
        As experienced XXCOPY users know, the power of XXCOPY is its
        ability to select files and directories.  The file compression
        feature of the NTFS volume is an excellent arena to show off
        XXCOPY's prowess.
        The following example is to crate a backup directory in compressed
        mode, then, uncompress certain files that does not benefit by
          cd      d:\backup                   // create directory
          xxcopy  d:\backup\   /ASD:C         // set C-bit
          xxcopy  c:\mydir\   d:\backup\ /S   // copy all files compressed
          xxcopy  d:\backup\*.jpg  /in:*.mp3  /AR:C /S
        The second example below copies files into a non-compressed
        destination first, and then compress all the files except certain
        classes of files that that are known to be highly compressed
          xxcopy  c:\mydir\   d:\backup\ /bu           // normal backup
          xxcopy  d:\backup\  /AS:C /X:*.jpg /X:*.mp3  // avoid dense files
        It is quite natural for a user to wish a more direct control
        of file compression which is carried out Anthe.  That is,
        with the current version of XXCOPY, you need to copy files
        into the destination using the default compression mode set
        by the parent directory once (say, in uncompressed mode), and
        then, to compress the files in a second pass.  Instead, it
        would be nice to directly write the selected file in compressed
        mode as a part of the file-copy operation when the destination
        directory is not set for compression.  We will explore such
        a feature in the future.
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